Examining the Pros and Cons of Mainstreaming written by:
The effects of mainstreaming o Abstract A wide range of research has been done on the effects of mainstreaming on learning disabled children. Although many studies have shown improvements and positive effects, none had addressed the best time to implement mainstreaming programs.
In this study, students, who had been diagnosed as moderately learning disabled, were selected to represent their respective grade level. Group 1 consisted of 15 students in kindergarten through 2nd grade, and Group 2 consisted of 15 students in grades 3rd through 5th.
Both groups were given the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revised at the beginning of the semester before inclusion was implemented, and another at the end of the semester.
Group 1 had shown a more significant difference in improvement than Group 2. This study shows that there are definitely positive effects of mainstreaming, but also hopes that these current findings will direct future research to detect learning disabilities as early as possible.
Effects of Mainstreaming on Moderate Learning Disabled Children in Early versus Late Elementary Grade Levels For many years now, there has been an increase of interest for the welfare of learning disabled children and their place in the normal classroom setting. The strive to create inclusion programs, however, has not just been a recent issue among these professionals.
The movement began in when the Education of the Handicapped Act now called The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act was created to develop programs across the United States.
This is where special and regular education teachers team up together to collaborate ideas and instruct students with disabilities in general education classrooms Martson, By being in the normal classroom, these students are also able to have more time to develop and keep friendships that are created with the normal class children Klinger et al.
All previous research that has been discussed has shown positive results when mainstreaming is brought into the school system.
However, research has yet to be done to show if mainstreaming is more effective when started early on grades kindergarten through secondor in the later elementary grades third through fifth.
As said before, it has been proven that mostly all mainstreaming attempts have been effective, but the question is if it would be more effective in early or later grade levels. The primary goal of this study conducted was to identify at which time is the best time to mainstream learning disabled children.
Just as it was hypothesized, the correlation was that the earlier that mainstreaming is implemented, the more the child will be able to achieve academic improvement.
Through this study, it is anticipated that mainstreaming will be able to benefit and reach out to even more learning disabled children than its existing positive outcomes.
Method Participants This study consisted of 30 students who were diagnosed with moderate learning disabilities by the Jefferson Parish School Board. The School Board diagnosed these children by using their standard diagnostic test that detects any form and the level of a learning disability.
The students were then randomly chosen by the principal of the school. The parents were then given and asked to sign an informed consent to allow their children to participate in this beneficial study.
All of the participants were from the same school, which is a public elementary school that contains kindergarten through fifth grade.
This school is located in a middle-class neighborhood and has already established and implemented a mainstreaming program for its learning disabled students. These 30 students were chosen to be compared and studied on the difference in their academic performance at the beginning of the semester when inclusion was first implemented and again at the end of the semester.
Male students and female students were dispersed as equal as possible among the two groups—15 males and 15 females. Of these 30 students, however, there were only 10 African-Americans and 20 were Caucasian students. The ages of the children range from 5-year-olds to year-olds. Materials After the children had been diagnosed by the school board as learning disabled, the children were then given the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revised to measure the students initial standing at the beginning of the semester.
Because the School Board has different forms of each test for each grade level, a different form of the test was used at the end of the semester to detect for any difference in the scores.Parents of disabled students brought a series of lawsuits in the late s and forced educators to reexamine the practice of mainstreaming to see whetherit could be improved.
In response to the lawsuits, educators recommended that schools spend more time determining the least restrictive environment available for each special education .
The results of the present study provide strong support that mainstreaming is more effective for learning disabled children when it is implemented in early elementary years (kindergarten through second grades) versus later elementary years (third through fifth grade).
Teaching students with moderate, severe, or profound disabilities in general education classrooms is becoming more common. The general education classroom presents a complex environment for instructional planning for these students for two reasons.
CHAPTER 17 Meta-Analytic Effects for Policy1 HERBERT J. WALBERG and JIN-SHEI LAI University of Illinois at Chicago Rational policy analysts, evaluators, and practitioners choose policies, pro-grams, practices, and instructional methods that suit such criteria as costs, ease of implementation, and appropriateness for their philosophies, condi-tions, and student characteristics.
Mainstreaming special needs students with the rest of the population exposes all students to all types of people, whether they have disorders or not. As the other students learn tolerance, the students with special needs will learn what behaviors are acceptable and which ones aren't.
with mild to moderate disabilities achieve success in inclusion classrooms. Some students demonstrate a variety of academic and behavioral characteristics that interfere with learning and achieving in tradi-tional science classrooms.