The analysis of lead(ii iodide essay

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The analysis of lead(ii iodide essay

About the author Introduction Weather modification is the effort of man to change naturally occurring weather, for the benefit of someone. The best-known kind of weather modification is cloud seeding, with the goal of producing rain or snow, suppressing hail which can ruin cropsor weakening hurricanes.

This essay is intended only to present general information about an interesting topic in law and is not advice for your specific problem. In NovemberDr. Vonnegut choose AgI crystals because there is nearly the same distance between molecules in the crystal lattice for both ice and AgI, which makes AgI the optimum material to nucleate ice.

Usually, progress is made by a series of small improvements on past practices, as a result of bumbling and guesswork. Vonnegut not only discovered the ice-nucleating properties of AgI, but he also invented a practical way of generating tiny AgI particles to serve as nuclei for ice crystals.

Vonnegut dissolved a mixture of AgI and another iodide in acetone, sprayed the solution through a nozzle to make droplets, then burned the droplets.

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Release of AgI into an existing supercooled cloud i. The ice crystals nucleated by the AgI will grow and local water droplets will shrink. The latent heat released by converting water vapor or liquid water to ice will increase vertical air motion inside the cloud and aid the convective growth of the cloud.

Raindrops or snowflakes will grow larger by falling through a taller cloud. Also, moist air from evaporated moisture in the soil will be sucked into the base of the cloud by convection i.

Depending on the temperature and humidity below the cloud, the snow may change to rain, or even evaporate, before reaching the ground. AgI is the most common ice nucleus used in cloud seeding, but it is not the only material used. These new droplets fall and either collide or coalesce with other droplets, to form rain drops.

Seeding clouds with either a water spray or hygroscopic materials requires dumping a large mass e. Such use of hygroscopic materials are condensation nuclei, not ice nuclei. While the physics differs in cloud seeding with ice nuclei and with condensation nuclei, both seeding methods have the same legal issues.

There were at least three earlier scientific attempts to modify weather: Emory Leon Chaffee at Harvard University dispensed charged sand from an airplane duringto attempt to modify weather.

Veraart in dropped dry ice into clouds, in an attempt to modify weather. His technique and results were apparently published only in his book, which was in the Dutch language. Houghton of MIT sprayed hygroscopic solutions into fogs in to dissipate the fog.

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None of these early scientists had adequate financial support for their research, so society was unable to benefit from their ideas. Looking back in time, it is clear that it is not enough to have a good idea or theoretical scientific insight into a problem.

One must also have the financial resources to pay both salaries and expenses of scientists with ideas and insight.

The analysis of lead(ii iodide essay

General Electric provided such resources to Langmuir and Vonnegut, and General Electric management was able to quickly arrange contracts with the U. Early History of Weather Modification at General Electric There was concern about legal liability from the earliest days of cloud seeding.

At the time of his discovery, Dr. Vonnegut worked in the research laboratory of Dr. Their initial work on cloud seeding was funded by the Company, not the U. Havens, Jiusto, Vonnegut,pp. It was recognized that the possibility of liability for damage from cloud-seeding experiments was a very worrisome hazard in this new form of cloud experimentation.

No further seeding flights were made until such sponsorship was provided. Havens, Jiusto, Vonnegut,p. Army Signal Corps began a contract with General Electric for cloud modification experiments. Part of this contract stated: The General Electric Research Laboratory responsibility is confined strictly to laboratory work and reports".

Subsequent analysis of the data by meteorologists showed that this hurricane had already begun to change its direction when the seeding was done.

Mook, Hoover, and Hoover, A modern assessment is: As discussed belowperhaps the more interesting lesson is not one of science, but ethics:Forward: Although this depression treatment by magnesium essay was written originally to address the role of magnesium as a depression treatment, the role of magnesium deficiency as cause of vast other morbidity and mortality is also addressed.

There are two aspects of early warning system. One is the availability of an effective technique to forecast the disaster with its extent and the other is effective communication of the same to the civil authority responsible for rescue operations.

Who would have thought that the Jetsons were right and we would try to get everything from one pill? Whether you are eating a poor diet and trying to fill in the gaps with a multivitamin, or eating a balanced diet and taking a multivitamin for insurance against deficiency, dietary supplements in the form of a multivitamin are a part of more than 30 percent of an American’s diet.

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Aim: To produce g of lead iodide, PbI2, assuming % conversion, using g solid potassium iodide, KI, and M lead nitrate, Pb(NO3)2 solution of volume 30 .

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