In California became the 31st state, and is now the third largest state behind Alaska and Texas. With millions of acres of farmland, California leads the U. The state is also home to famous cultural institutions and national parks including: September 9, Capital:
Over the last two centuries, vaccination has been one of the most successful medical interventions in reduction of infectious diseases 1. Infections are responsible for almost one-third of all deaths worldwide 2.
Currently vaccines are available in three forms: Classical vaccines were mostly based on live-attenuated and inactivated pathogen. Due to the complex nature and safety issues of these classic vaccines, subunit vaccines are preferred over these classical vaccines.
However, disadvantages of subunit vaccines are that they are based on a purified protein, peptide or Investigation on ny quil essay fragment of the pathogen and are poor immunogens compared to the traditional vaccines 4.
Almost all subunit vaccines are administered by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, but alternative routes of administration such as intradermal and subcutaneous are widely explored.
Injections can be painful and require syringes, needles, trained personnel and carry the risk of transmitting various bio hazardous pathogens 5. Novel vaccination strategies are still needed which should result in safer injections but at the same time still being cost-effective and capable of evoking an immune response in patients 6 7.
The skin is an attractive target for vaccination as it acts as a major barrier for the entry of environmental pathogens, while at the same time being easily accessible for vaccine administration 8 9.
The skin has a great possibility for painless drug delivery. First of all, skin tissue contains more antigen presenting cells APCs than muscle and subcutaneous tissue.
Targeting the skin immune system can be carried out with transcutaneous and intradermal immunization. Transcutaneous immunization refers to the needle-free topical application of a vaccine with or without an adjuvant.
Transcutaneous immunization has several benefits such as inducing a strong humoral and cellular response. Intradermal immunization is the delivery of molecules into the dermis.
DCs in the dermis are able to capture and process foreign antigen resulting in a strong cellular and humoral immune response. In addition, the skin has a large surface area for drug application These two methods allow for the use of smaller quantities of antigen Furthermore the transdermal route bypasses the first-pass effect of the liver, which also suggests that the skin is a very attractive place for vaccination.
In the past micro particles were often used. So is seen in the past that these particles are too large to cross the intestinal mucosal barrier of the gastrointestinal GI tract after the drug has been delivered orally.
Nanoparticles on the other hand have an advantage over micro particles due their nano-sizes. Nanoparticles are particles from different materials with dimensions ranging from nm, to which drugs or antigens can be attached, adsorbed, encapsulated or entrapped.
They demonstrate unique properties and functions due to their nano-scale size The size of these particles resemble natural pathogens and are therefore easily internalized by cells. Due to their size, nanoparticles can enter living cells by pinocytosis and presentation of antigens is better recognized by the immune system Nanoparticles can be produced in various sizes, surface charges, shapes and compositions However, the use of nanoparticles encounters also some problems.A decade later, contributors to the original SSRC forum on 9/11 were asked to reflect on what they wrote and to explore what has changed and what remains the same since those harrowing times.
This essay examines a collection of manuscript fragments of the Grimault. Whereas Steinschaber notes that Geoffroy struck the giant's leg in such a way 'quil luy abbatit demi piet ou braon' (fol Treasures from the Reserve Collection (New York, ), pp.
and New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Sallet, Hans Blaerer the. My wife introduced the mid-autumn festival to me and a few years ago we gathered with some friends in a local park in Brooklyn NY to celebrate.
Nyquil: Medication and Treatment Essay Sample.
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Free Essay: Nyquil The power of Nyquil is sometimes overlooked as just another sinus medication or cold and flue relief. What is unnoticed is the power this.