History as natural history an essay on theory and method

The Hebrew word used here for "men" is "Ghever," and it is commonly associated with warfare. Exodus does not specify how or if the men were armed unless perhaps Exodus Yet it does not seem to occur to the fleeing Israelites to fight back against the pursuing Egyptians. They behave like a small band of trapped refugees.

History as natural history an essay on theory and method

History of analysis The Greeks encounter continuous magnitudes Analysis consists of those parts of History as natural history an essay on theory and method in which continuous change is important.

Natural History

These include the study of motion and the geometry of smooth curves and surfaces—in particular, the calculation of tangents, areas, and volumes. Ancient Greek mathematicians made great progress in both the theory and practice of analysis.

The Pythagoreans and irrational numbers Initially, the Pythagoreans believed that all things could be measured by the discrete natural numbers 1, 2, 3, … and their ratios ordinary fractions, or the rational numbers.

This belief was shaken, however, by the discovery that the diagonal of a unit square that is, a square whose sides have a length of 1 cannot be expressed as a rational number.

Against their own intentions, the Pythagoreans had thereby shown that rational numbers did not suffice for measuring even simple geometric objects. For the Greeks, line segments were more general than numbers, because they included continuous as well as discrete magnitudes.

Pythagorean theoremVisual demonstration of the Pythagorean theorem. In the box on the left, the green-shaded a2 and b2 represent the squares on the sides of any one of the identical right triangles.

On the right, the four triangles are rearranged, leaving c2, the square on the hypotenuse, whose area by simple arithmetic equals the sum of a2 and b2. For the proof to work, one must only see that c2 is indeed a square. This is done by demonstrating that each of its angles must be 90 degrees, since all the angles of a triangle must add up to degrees.

This was realized by Euclid, who studied the arithmetic of both rational numbers and line segments. His famous Euclidean algorithmwhen applied to a pair of natural numbers, leads in a finite number of steps to their greatest common divisor.

Euclid even used this nontermination property as a criterion for irrationality. Thus, irrationality challenged the Greek concept of number by forcing them to deal with infinite processes. In his Physics c. There is no motion because that which is moved must arrive at the middle [of the course] before it arrives at the end.

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Presumably, Zeno meant that, to get anywhere, one must first go half way and before that one-fourth of the way and before that one-eighth of the way and so on.

Still, despite their loathing of infinity, the Greeks found that the concept was indispensable in the mathematics of continuous magnitudes. So they reasoned about infinity as finitely as possible, in a logical framework called the theory of proportions and using the method of exhaustion.

It established an exact relationship between rational magnitudes and arbitrary magnitudes by defining two magnitudes to be equal if the rational magnitudes less than them were the same.

In other words, two magnitudes were different only if there was a rational magnitude strictly between them. This definition served mathematicians for two millennia and paved the way for the arithmetization of analysis in the 19th century, in which arbitrary numbers were rigorously defined in terms of the rational numbers.

The theory of proportions was the first rigorous treatment of the concept of limits, an idea that is at the core of modern analysis. The method of exhaustion The method of exhaustionalso due to Eudoxus, was a generalization of the theory of proportions.

In this way, he could compute volumes and areas of many objects with the help of a few shapes, such as triangles and triangular prisms, of known dimensions.

History as natural history an essay on theory and method

Among his discoveries using exhaustion were the area of a parabolic segment, the volume of a paraboloid, the tangent to a spiral, and a proof that the volume of a sphere is two-thirds the volume of the circumscribing cylinder.

His calculation of the area of the parabolic segment involved the application of infinite series to geometry. For information on how he made his discoveries, see Sidebar: Models of motion in medieval Europe The ancient Greeks applied analysis only to static problems—either to pure geometry or to forces in equilibrium.

Analysis began its long and fruitful association with dynamics in the Middle Ageswhen mathematicians in England and France studied motion under constant acceleration. This result was discovered by mathematicians at Merton College, Oxford, in the s, and for that reason it is sometimes called the Merton acceleration theorem.

History as natural history an essay on theory and method

A very simple graphical proof was given about by the French bishop and Aristotelian scholar Nicholas Oresme. He observed that the graph of velocity versus time is a straight line for constant acceleration and that the total displacement of an object is represented by the area under the line.

This area equals the width length of the time interval times the height velocity at the middle of the interval. Merton acceleration theoremDiscovered in the s by mathematicians at Merton College, Oxford, the Merton acceleration theorem asserts that the distance an object moves under uniform acceleration is equal to the width of the time interval multiplied by its velocity at the midpoint of the interval its mean speed.

​Knowledge frameworks, knowledge questions and topics of study (TOK guide 2015) History Natural Law Theory The natural law theory is a theory that dates back to the time of the Greeks and great thinkers like Plato and Aristotle. Defined as the law which states that human are inborn with certain laws preordained into them which let them determine what is right and what is wrong.
Definition Some writers use the term with such a broad meaning that any moral theory that is a version of moral realism — that is, any moral theory that holds that some positive moral claims are literally true for this conception of moral realism, see Sayre-McCord — counts as a natural law view. Some use it so narrowly that no moral theory that is not grounded in a very specific form of Aristotelian teleology could count as a natural law view.

The figure shows Nicholas Oresme's graphical proof c. In making this translation of dynamics into geometry, Oresme was probably the first to explicitly use coordinates outside of cartography.

He also helped to demystify dynamics by showing that the geometric equivalent of motion could be quite familiar and tractable. For example, from the Merton acceleration theorem the distance traveled in time t by a body undergoing constant acceleration from rest is proportional to t2.

At the time, it was not known whether such motion occurs in nature, but in the Italian mathematician and physicist Galileo discovered that this model precisely fits free-falling bodies.Find great deals for Natural Histories: Extraordinary Birds: Essays and Plates of Rare Book Selections from the American Museum of Natural History Library by Paul Sweet and American Museum of Natural History Staff (, Quantity pack).

Shop with confidence on eBay! One of the strongest arguments for insisting that ‘Darwinism’ as it is used today is isomorphic to Darwin's Darwinism, as Gayon puts it, is that each of these questions is still hotly debated, and has been throughout the theory's history.

This makes human sciences, to some extent, different from natural sciences. We breed fruit flies to check genetic mutations with no one blinking an eye, for example.

Her work straddles the territories of art and science, bugs and flowers

Then again, throughout history, ethical constraints have also limited the natural scientists' methods in the search for knowledge. Hegel: Social and Political Thought.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel () is one of the greatest systematic thinkers in the history of Western philosophy. Over the past 50 years, the subject of garden history has been firmly established as an academic discipline. While many have explored what was created in gardens throughout history, the reasons as to why they were created has naturally been more diverse.

Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable.

Social Science History: Society and Science History TimeLine