Open systems theory grew out of the application of general systems theory to organizational theory. General systems theory, the larger view of "the dynamic interrelationship of several parts of a larger whole as it interacts with its environment" Beer,p. Miller defined general systems theory as 17 a set of related definitions, assumptions, and propositions which deal with reality as an integrated hierarchy of organizations of matter and energy. They are as follows:
Scholars throughout the world have long pointed out the differences between educational thinking, including both ideological underpinnings and actual educational intentions, of systems geographically classified as Western and Eastern.
Larson, in the Guidelines for Barefoot Language Learning: An Approach through Involvement and Independence quotes one of the most provocative statements about these differences offered by Japanese anthropologist Kosuke Koyama.
Koyama uses a metaphor to explain eastern educational thought. There are graceful curves, sharp peaks, deep valleys, slow winding creeks and crashing waterfalls.
When learning is natural it is curved, slow, and has a dialogic spirit. Other scholars such as Joyce Linn have a somewhat different observation and are more direct and less poetic. For instance, Eastern education is mainly based on book learning and memorization.
They focus on classics and exams. Teachers often have to rush through the textbooks to meet the deadline of every monthly examination Lin, n. Echoing this groundedness in religious thought regarding educational systems in the Middle East is Fulbright scholar and independent researcher Mohammed-Marzouk.
This Islamic influence on the actual educational process manifests itself in a variety of pedagogical forms. According to Marzouk it is most evident in the manner of instruction utilized throughout most of the Middle East.
Little attention is given to meaningful memorization because teachers and graders perceive rote memorization to be a better approach. This type of pedagogical 3 structure has been identified by numerous scholars as a major problem facing the present educational system in the Middle East and one of the major barriers international students face when they study abroad and encounter a different type of system.
Therefore, it is imperative that scholars, students, and academic reformers be fully aware of the pedagogical differences between these two systems. Mesopotamia It is important for us today to remember that what is now called Iraq was once the cradle of modern civilization and development.
For example, as far back as the Sumerian period in the 4th century B. Sumerian mathematicians and thinkers first divided the circle into degrees and produced the world's first epic poetry.
The Sumerians are also the people that developed Cuneiform which is one of the oldest forms of writing known in history. This is also the region that produced such historic figures as Hammurabi who promulgated a new legal code known as the Code of Hammurabi eighteen hundred years prior to Christ.
Later, during the Babylonian Golden Age from the 's-1, BCE Baghdad became the intellectual center for science, medicine, philosophy and education. The first modern college of law was established in Baghdad in During this pre Saddam period the Iraqi Academy of Sciences was a major center in the Arab world for the study of languages, history and literature.
Iraqi scientists regularly traveled around the world and participated in conferences and contributed to recognized academic journals.
Students from Iraq traveled to countries like Great Britain and the United States, including Southern Illinois University Shepherd,to pursue post-secondary education.
Unfortunately, this period of educational dynamism would succumb to political changes employed by the Baathist party. This type of indoctrination and brainwashing had profound negative effects on several generations of young Iraqi's and caused other major problems within the educational sector.
Harb, Ranjan and Marzouk discuss in some detail the damaging ramifications of Baathist control which they claim was largely responsible for countless thousands of intellectuals and university professors fleeing the country.Patton Fuller Community hospital revenue comes from eighty percent inpatient activity, what is included in this is the surgical nursing, medical, surgery charges, and the intensive care unit charges.
Then, the other twenty percent, of the revenue, from the hospital will come from the emergency department, and from any other outpatient services. The combination of document analysis and qualitative interviews utilises multiple data sources (Patton ).
The advantage of this type of inquiry lies in the use of: “different data sources to validate and cross check findings” (Patton, ). to look to other sources of revenue, such as increasing tuition.
Feedback, which can be either positive or negative, is information from the internal or external environment regarding the outputs of the.
The timing of a company's recognition of revenue on its financial statements depends on whether it uses the accrual or cash basis of accounting to maintain its books.
Timing of Recognition. Patton-fuller community hospital case study Abstract Finance, understanding how it affects the smallest business to the largest organization, is the origin to financial success in businesses.
According to Gitman (), finance is the art and science of managing money. Recorded revenue is subject to the revenue-matching principle, which is a requirement of U.S.
accounting legal requirements know as the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or GAAP. Under the revenue-matching principle, all revenues recorded on statements must be matched to the expenses incurred to produce the revenue.
For example, revenue from an item sold must be matched to the expenses .