The Spanish-Dutch treaty was signed on January 30, EnglandPolandRussiaand the Ottoman Empire were the only European powers that were not represented at the two assemblies. Some scholars of international relations credit the treaties with providing the foundation of the modern state system and articulating the concept of territorial sovereignty.
Those who had fought against the Allies suffered heavy casualties as well: Alongside these statistics, was the fact that vast areas of north-eastern Europe had been reduced to rubble.
Flanders in Belgium had been all but destroyed with the ancient city of Ypres being devastated. The homes ofFrench people were destroyed and the infrastructure of this region had also been severely damaged. The victors from World War One were in no mood to be charitable to the defeated nations and Germany, in particular, was held responsible for the war and its consequences.
During mid, Europe was hit by Spanish flu and an estimated 25 million people died. This added to the feeling of bitterness that ran through Europe and this anger was primarily directed at Germany.
His public image was simple. He was a politician and politicians needed the support of the public to succeed in elections. If he had come across as being soft on Germany, he would have been speedily voted out of office. After the war had finished, Lloyd George believed that the spread of communism posed a far greater threat to the world than a defeated Germany.
Privately, he felt that Germany should be treated in such a way that left her as a barrier to resist the expected spread of communism. He did not want the people of Germany to become so disillusioned with their government that they turned to communism.
Lloyd George did not want Germany treated with lenience but he knew that Germany would be the only country in central Europe that could stop the spread of communism if it burst over the frontiers of Russia. Germany had to be punished but not to the extent that it left her destitute.
However, it would have been political suicide to have gone public with these views. Georges Clemenceau of France had one very simple belief — Germany should be brought to its knees so that she could never start a war again. This reflected the views of the French public but it was also what Clemenceau himself believed in.
He had seen the north-east corner of France destroyed and he determined that Germany should never be allowed to do this again. Woodrow Wilson of America had been genuinely stunned by the savagery of the Great War. He could not understand how an advanced civilisation could have reduced itself so that it had created so much devastation.
In Americathere was a growing desire for the government to adopt a policy of isolation and leave Europe to its own devices. In failing health, Wilson wanted America to concentrate on itself and, despite developing the idea of a League of Nationshe wanted an American input into Europe to be kept to a minimum.
He believed that Germany should be punished but in a way that would lead to European reconciliation as opposed to revenge. The main points in this document were: He was frequently left on the sidelines when the important negotiations took place despite Italy fighting on the side of the Allies.
Why was Italy treated in this manner? Also Italy had not played an overwhelming part in the war. Her army had been beaten at the battles of Caporetto. Her strategic importance to central Europe was minimal whilst Britain dominated the Mediterranean with naval bases in Malta and Gibraltar.
Therefore, the three main nations in the lead up to the treaty were far from united on how Germany should be treated. The eventual treaty seemed to satisfy everyone on the sides of the Allies. So what exactly did the treaty do to Germany? The terms of the Treaty of Versailles The treaty can be divided into a number of sections; territorial, military, financial and general.
Territorial The following land was taken away from Germany: Germany had to return to Russia land taken in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Some of this land was made into new states: Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. An enlarged Poland also received some of this land.The Treaty of Versailles brought an end to World War I, making peace between Germany and the Allies.
However, its treatment of Germany laid the foundation for many of the problems that led to World War II. 1. What did Wilson believe was the most important thing to accomplish at Versailles? Create League of Nations 2.
What was France’s chief goal at the conference? Treaty of Versailles In June , the peacemakers summoned representatives of the new German Republic to the palace of Versailles outside Paris.
The Germans were ordered to sign the treaty drawn up by Allies. The Versailles Peace Conference (also called the Paris Peace Conference) marked the official end to World War I, then called the Great War. The conference was held in Versailles, France in , following the Armistice of 11 November , which ended the fighting of the war years.
Germany had formally surrendered on November 11, , and all nations had agreed to stop fighting while the terms of peace were negotiated. On June 28, , Germany and the Allied Nations (including Britain, France, Italy and Russia) signed the Treaty of Versailles, formally ending the war.
The Peace of Westphalia consisted of two related treaties, the Treaty of Münster and the Treaty of Osnabrück, signed at the end of the Thirty Years’ War, which was generally between Catholic.