Today, the discussion is not so much about whether having racially and ethnically diverse college campuses is desirable, but rather about how best to achieve that worthy objective.
Education Program Affirmative action policies are those in which an institution or organization actively engages in efforts to improve opportunities for historically excluded groups in American society.
Affirmative action policies often focus on employment and education. In institutions of higher education, affirmative action refers to admission policies that provide equal access to education for those groups that have been historically excluded or underrepresented, such as women and minorities.
Controversy surrounding the constitutionality of affirmative action programs has made the topic one of heated debate. InPresident Kennedy was the first to use the term "affirmative action" in an Executive Order that directed government contractors to take "affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.
Affirmative action policies initially focused on improving opportunities for African Americans in employment and education. Board of Education decision in outlawing school segregation and the Civil Rights Act of improved life prospects for African Americans.
Inhowever, only five percent of undergraduate students, one percent of law students, and two percent of medical students in the country were African American. President Lyndon Johnson, an advocate for affirmative action, signed an Executive Order in that required government contractors to use affirmative action policies in their hiring to increase the number of minority employees.
In the following years, colleges and universities began adopting similar recruitment policies, and over time the enrollment rates for African American and Latino students increased steadily. According to data from the National Center on Education Statistics NCESin70 percent Affirmative action in higher education white high school graduates immediately enrolled in college, compared to 56 percent of African American graduates and 61 percent of Hispanic graduates.
The updated report finds that in69 percent of white high school graduates immediately enrolled in college, compared to 65 percent of African American graduates and 63 percent of Hispanic graduates.
The Affirmative Action Debate The use of race as a factor in the college admissions process has been, and continues to be, a hotly debated topic.
Supporters of affirmative action make the following arguments: Affirmative action is more of a process than just an admissions policy. Colleges and universities reach out to groups that are underrepresented and urge students to apply.
Institutions often offer financial aid to underrepresented students and provide on-campus support programs to improve their academic success. Affirmative action programs have resulted in doubling or tripling the number of minority applications to colleges or universities, and have made colleges and universities more representative of their surrounding community.
Statistics show that after California abolished its affirmative action programs inthe minority student admissions at UC Berkeley fell 61 percent, and minority admissions at UCLA fell 36 percent. Graduates who benefited from affirmative action programs say that they have received better jobs, earned more money, and ultimately are living better lives because of the opportunity they received.
Diversity in higher education provides an educational advantage for all students, both personally and intellectually. We exist in a global, multicultural society, and in order to achieve success, employers and employees must be able to work effectively with the diverse society that surrounds them.
Affirmative action policies are necessary in order to compensate for centuries of racial, social, and economic oppression.
Generally, individuals with higher socioeconomic status have more opportunities than those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Supporters believe that certain racial or ethnic groups are disadvantaged because they are frequently in lower income brackets and consequently are not exposed to the same resources as students from higher socioeconomic classes.
Affirmative action was created to ensure fair admission practices and to rectify a long period of racial discrimination. The policy is outdated, however, and causes a form of reverse discrimination by favoring one group over another, based on racial preference rather than academic achievement.
Further, there is concern that minority groups may be stigmatized and treated differently by peers and professors who may believe that the success of minority groups in higher education institutions is unearned.
Likewise, the programs may be illegal under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act ofwhich prohibits discrimination based on race, color or national origin by recipients of federal financial assistance. Affirmative action policies lower standards and make students less accountable. If standards for test scores, grade point average, etc.
Affirmative action policies do not necessarily help economically disadvantaged students. A study by the Hoover Institution found that affirmative action tends to benefit middle- and upper-class minorities.
Many opponents believe that diversity in higher education is extremely important, but that affirmative action only serves to amplify racial prejudice.
Because there is no correlation between skin color and intelligence, affirmative action programs are unnecessary. Moreover, affirmative action programs are condescending to the underrepresented groups since it is implied that the groups need affirmative action in order to succeed in higher education.
States should focus on other policies or programs that encourage equal opportunity, such as setting high expectations for all students and improving their college readiness.The final columns of Table 2 show the effects of affirmative action on cumulative GPA through the fall of the sophomore year.
This average of three semesters is a more robust outcome, as evidence by the higher R -squared. Asian, Latino and black students were more likely to view affirmative action as helpful compared to their white counterparts, and limited awareness of institutional racism (i.e., higher CoBRAS scores) was associated with antiaffirmative action arguments.
On Thursday, the ACLU filed a friend-of-the-court brief with a federal court in Boston in defense of affirmative action in higher education. Whether or not Harvard discriminated against Asian-American applicants in its admissions process will ultimately be decided by the courts, but the remedy that the plaintiff seeks is extreme and unconstitutional for .
The court has observed that our nation is growing more diverse and that, for our democracy to succeed, institutions of higher education must prepare students to work with people whose racial and.
Within higher education, affirmative action has for fifty years served as a sort of bandage that helps hold a deeply inequitable system together.
Because minorities won affirmative action preferences, civil rights groups made their peace with legacy preferences and have declined to join efforts to challenge the preferences for the children of. Affirmative action policies often focus on employment and education.
In institutions of higher education, affirmative action refers to admission policies that provide equal access to education for those groups that have been historically excluded or underrepresented, such as women and minorities.