A method of artificial preservation, called mummification was developed by the ancient Egyptians.
Egyptian Mummification Egyptian Mummification Egyptian embalmers were so skilled that people mummified four thousand years ago still have skin, hair and recognizable features such as scars and tattoos. The word mummy comes from the Arabic mummiya, meaning bitumen or coal and every Egyptian, except the most abject criminal, was entitled to be embalmed and receive a decent burial.
The body was taken to the embalmers by the relatives, who then chose the method and quality of mummification. The best and most expensive methods were used on the wealthy, but there were cheaper alternatives for the poor. The Greek historian Herodotus, who lived in the fifth century BC, described the different methods The Most Costly Draw out the brain through the nostrils Take out the whole contents of the belly, and clean the interior with palm-wine and spices.
Fill the belly with pure myrrh, cassia and other spices and sew it together again. Cover up in natron for seventy days. Wash the corpse and roll it up in fine linen.
Less Costly Fill the belly with oil of cedar-wood using a syringe by the breech, which is plugged to stop the drench from returning back; it dissolves the bowels and interior organs. After the appointed number of days with the natron treatment the cedar oil is let out and the corpse is left as skin and the bones.
Returned the corpse the family. For the Poor Cleanse out the belly with a purge. Keep the body for seventy days of natron treatment.
Return the corpse to the family. Canopic Jars Canopic Jars Except for the heart, which was needed by the deceased in the Hall of Judgment, the embalmers removed all of the internal organs from the body. These were placed into four vases, called Canopic Jars. The lids formed the shape of the Four Sons of Horus.
The liver was associated with Imset who was depicted with a human head. The stomach was associated with Duamutef with the head of a jackal.
The intestines and viscera of the lower body was associated with the falcon headed Kebechsenef. Natron Natron is a naturally occurring white, crystalline mineral salt which absorbs water from its surroundings.
It was mined from dry lake beds and used in the mummification process to soak up water from the body.
After seventy days in natron the dried out and shriveled body was washed and rubbed with oil and fragrant spices. The inside was packed with cloth before being wrapped in linen. The face was painted to make it look lifelike and the hair neatly arranged.
The chief embalmer, dressed as Anubis god of embalmingwould bless the diseased and priests said prayers to help the dead person on his way into the next world. Finally, the body was wrapped in linen bandages which were soaked in resin and magical amulets were placed within the bandages as symbols of power, protection, and rebirth.
The body was then returned to the relatives who placed it in a wooden coffin. Coffins and Sarcophagi A coffin is the rectangular or anthropoid human shaped container that held the mummified body.Citefast is a FREE APA, MLA and Chicago citation generator.
Generate references, bibliographies, in-text citations and title pages quickly and accurately. Used by students and professionals.
CAIRO (AP) — Archaeologists say they have discovered a mummification workshop dating back some 2, years at an ancient necropolis near Egypt's famed pyramids.
Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries [A. Lucas, J. R. Harris] on torosgazete.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Fascinating, comprehensive text describes ancient Egypt's vast resources and the processes that incorporated them in daily life.
Topics include the use of animal products. The majority of preserved mummy portraits were painted on boards or panels, made from different imported hardwoods, including oak, lime, sycamore, cedar, cypress, fig, and citrus. The wood was cut into thin rectangular panels and made smooth. Jun 18, · Len Bloch details the mummification process and examines its results thousands of years later.
Lesson by Len Bloch, animation by The Moving Company Animation Studio. Category.
Ancient Egyptian Medicine In Sickness and in Health: Preventative and Curative Health Care If one had to be ill in ancient times, the best place to do so would probably have been Egypt.
Not that an Egyptian's chances of survival would have been significantly better than those of his foreign contemporaries, but at least he had the satisfaction of being treated by physicians whose art was.